LongRunMIP is an ongoing model intercomparison to study century and millennia time scales of atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) equilibration and the linearity assumptions around feedback analysis. As an ensemble of opportunity, there is no previously agreed upon protocol and the only condition to participate is a coupled model simulation of any stabilizing scenario simulating more than 1,000 years. LongRunMIP currently contains fifty simulations of fifteen different models originating from ten modelling centers, each between 1,000 and 6,000 years long.

Temperature response to CO2 in the atmosphere and ocean for two representative models. Visualization by Tarun Chadha of SIS/C2SM, ETH Zurich. More animations can be found here.


Model Simulation Length Atm. resolution Ocean resolution Control sim. (years)
CESM 1.0.4abrupt2x250096x144384x20x601320



hflsSurface upward latent heat flux
hfssSurface upward sensible heat flux
prPrecipitation (on atmospheric grid)
pslSea level pressure
rldsSurface downwelling longwave radiation
rlusSurface upwelling longwave radiation
rlutTOA outgoing longwave radiation
rlutcsTOA outgoing clear-sky longwave radiation
rsdsSurface downwelling shortwave radiation
rsdtTOA incident shortwave radiation
rsusSurface upwelling shortwave radiation
rsutTOA outgoing shortwave radiation
rsutcsTOA outgoing clear-sky shortwave radiation
tasNear-surface air temperature
tsAtmospheric surface temperature
netTOANet TOA flux
netSURFNet surface flux


sicSea ice area fraction, monthly
moc/msftmyzMeridional overturning circulation
surfNet ocean heat uptake, annual
tosSea surface temperature, annual
sosSea surface salinity, annual
wfoNet water flux into sea water
evsWater evaporation
pr_ocnPrecipitation (on ocean grid)
tauuoSurface downward wind stress in x dirction
tauvoSurface downward wind stress in y dirction
soSea water salinity, 3D full time series, annual
thetaoSea water potential temperature, 3D full time series, annual
agesscIdeal age, time since surface contact 3D full time series, annual
thetaoFebSea water potential temperature, 3D full time series, February
thetaoSepSea water potential temperature, 3D full time series, September
soFebSea water salinity, 3D full time series, February
soSepSea water salinity, 3D full time series, September


  • Rugenstein, M., J. Bloch-Johnson, A. Abe-Ouchi, T. Andrews, U. Beyerle, L. Cao, T. Chadha, G. Danabasoglu, J.-L. Dufresne, L. Duan, M.-A. Foujols, T. L. Frölicher, O. Geoffroy, J. Gregory, R. Knutti, C. Li, A. Marzocchi, T. Mauritsen, M. Menary, E. Moyer, L. Nazarenko, D. Paynter, D. Saint-Martin, G. A. Schmidt, A. Yamamoto, and S. Yang, 2019: LongRunMIP - motivation and design for a large collection of millennial-length GCM simulations, BAMS link
  • Rugenstein, M., J. Bloch-Johnson, J. Gregory, T. Andrews, T. Mauritsen, C. Li, T. L. Frölicher, D. Paynter, G. Danabasoglu, S. Yang, J.-L. Dufresne, L. Cao, G. A. Schmidt, A. Abe-Ouchi, O. Geoffroy, and R. Knutti, 2019: Equilibrium climate sensitivity estimated by equilibrating climate models, GRL link
  • J. Bloch-Johnson, Rugenstein, M., and D. S. Abbot, 2020: Spatial radiative feedbacks from internal variability using multiple regression, J. Climate link
  • Dai, A., D. Huang, B. E. J. Rose, J. Zhu, and X. Tian, 2020: Improved methods for estimating equilibrium climate sensitivity from transient warming simulations, Climate Dynamics link
  • Schwarzwald, K., A. Poppick, M. Rugenstein, J. Bloch-Johnson, J. Wang, D. McInerney, and E. J. Moyer, 2020: Changes in future precipitation mean and variability across scales, J. Climate link
  • J. Bloch-Johnson, Rugenstein, M., M. B. Stolpe, T. Rohrschneider, Y. Zheng, and J. Gregory, 2020: Climate sensitivity increases under higher CO2 levels due to feedback temperature dependence, GRL link
  • Sherwood, S. C., M. J. Webb, J. D. Annan, K. C. Armour, P. M. Forster, J. C. Hargreaves, G. Hegerl, S. A. Klein, K. D. Marvel, E. J. Rohling, M. Watanabe, T. Andrews, P. Braconnot, C. S. Bretherton, G. L. Foster, Z. Hausfather, A. S. von der Heydt, R. Knutti, T. Mauritsen, J. R. Norris, C. Proistosescu, M. Rugenstein, G. A. Schmidt, K. B. Tokarska, M. D. Zelinka, 2020: An Assessment of Earth's Climate Sensitivity Using Multiple Lines of Evidence, Review of Geophysics link
  • Bastiaansen, R., H. A. Dijkstra, A. S. von der Heydt, 2020: Multivariate Estimations of Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity From Short Transient Warming Simulations, GRL link
  • Dunne J. P., M. Winton, J. Bacmeister, G. Danabasoglu, A. Gettelman, J.-C. Golaz, C. Hannay, G. A. Schmidt, J. P. Krasting, L. R. Leung, L. Nazarenko, L. T. Sentman, R. J. Stouffer, J. D. Wolfe, 2020: Comparison of Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity Estimates From Slab Ocean, 150-Year, and Longer Simulations, GRL link
  • Callahan, C., C. Chen, M. Rugenstein, J. Bloch-Johnson, S. Yang, and E. J. Moyer, 2021: Robust decrease in ENSO amplitude under long-term warming, Nature Climate Change link

Using LongRunMIP data in your publication? Please let us know, so we can add it to the list!


Please contact the organizers below for data access.


LongRunMIP is organized by

and has contributions from Ayako Abe-Ouchi (MIROC), Timothy Andrews (HadGEM2), Long Cao (HadCM3L), Gokhan Danabasoglu (CCSM3), Jean-Louis Dufresne (IPSL), Thomas Frölicher (GFDL-ESM2M), Olivier Geoffroy (CNRM),Jonathan Gregory (FAMOUS), Chao Li (ECHAM5/MPIOM, MPI-ESM-1.1), Thorsten Mauritsen (MPI-ESM-1.2), Elisabeth Moyer (CCSM3), David Paynter (GFDL-CM3), Maria Rugenstein (CESM104), Gavin A. Schmidt (GISSE2R), and Shuting Yang (EC-EARTH-PISM).

We are still accepting contributions, so please get in contact if you want to participate.